Narrated Ibn 'Umar:The following quotations from Muslims are taken from a chapter of the book "Behind the Veil".
Allah's Apostle said: "I have been ordered (by Allah) to fight against the people until they testify that none has the right to be worshipped but Allah and that Muhammad is Allah's Apostle, and offer the prayers perfectly and give the obligatory charity, so if they perform that, then they save their lives and property from me except for Islamic laws and then their reckoning (accounts) will be done by Allah." (Sahih Bukhari 1.24)
"The Holy War, as it is known in Islamic Jurisprudence, is basically an offensive war. This is the duty of Muslims in every age when the needed military power becomes available to them. This is the phase in which the meaning of Holy War has taken its final form. Thus the apostle of God said: `I was commanded to fight the people until they believe in God and his message .." (Dr. Muhammad Sa'id Ramadan al-Buti, "Jurisprudence in Muhammad's Biography",7th ed., p. 134) [He is an al-Azhar scholar]
"No infidel [unbeliever] should be left on his land as it is denoted from Muhammad's statement: `I was commanded to fight the people ...'" (Dr. Muhammad al-Amin, "The Method of Islamic Law")
When Muhammad and his followers were about to attack Mecca to subjugate it to Islam, his adherents arrested Abu Sufyan, one of Mecca's inhabitants. They brought him to Muhammad. Muhammad told him: "Woe to you, O Abu Sufyan. Is it not time for you to realize that there is no God but the only God?" Abu Sufyan answered: "I do believe that." Muhammad then said to him: "Woe to you, O Abu Sufyan. Is it not time for you to know that I am the apostle of God?" Abu Sufyan answered: "By God, O Muhammad, of this there is doubt in my soul." The 'Abbas who was present with Muhammad told Abu Sufyan: "Woe to you! Accept Islam and testify that Muhammad is the apostle of God before your neck is cut off by the sword." Thus he professed the faith of Islam and became a Muslim. (ibn Hisham, part 4, p. 11; Chronicle of the Tabari, part 2, p. 157; Ibn Kathir, "The Prophetic Biography", part 3, p. 549, Ibn Kathir, "The Beginning and the End"; Ibn Khaldun, the rest of part 2, p. 43 and on; Al-Sira al-Halabiyya, Vol. 3. p. 18; Al-Sohaily, Al Road Al Anf, part 4, p. 90; Dr. Muhammad Sa’id Ramadan al-Buti, "Jurisprudence in Muhammad'’s Biography",7th ed., p.277)
"It may be said, `What is the value of a faith in Islam which is a result of a threat? Abu Sufyan, one moment ago, was not a believer, then he believed after he was threatened by death.' We say to those who question: `What is required of an infidel or the one who confuses other gods with God, is to have his tongue surrender to the religion of God and to subdue himself to the prophethood of Muhammad. But his heartfelt faith is not required at the beginning. It will come later."' (Dr. Muhammad Sa'id Ramadan al-Buti, "Jurisprudence in Muhammad's Biography",7th ed., p.284)
"Muhammad sent Khalid Ibn al-Walid to the tribe of the children of Haritha and told him: `Call them to accept Islam before you fight with them. If they respond, accept that from them, but if they refuse, fight them.' Khalid told them: `Accept Islam and spare your life.' They entered Islam by force. He brought them to Muhammad. Muhammad said to them: `Had you not accepted Islam I would have cast your heads under your feet"' (ibn Hisham, "The Biography of the Apostle", part 4, p. 134; also Al Road Al Anf, part 4, pp. 217, 218)
"The apostle of God started to send military detachments from among his followers to the various Arab tribes which were scattered in the Arab Peninsula to carry out the task of calling (these tribes) to accept Islam If they did not respond, they would kill them. That was during the 7th Higira year. The number of the detachments amounted to ten." (Dr. Muhammad Sa'id Ramadan al-Buti, "Jurisprudence in Muhammad'’s Biography",7th ed., p. 263)
"Ali Ibn Abi Talib encountered a man called 'Umru and told him, `I indeed invite you to Islam.' 'Umru said, `I do not need that.' 'Ali said, ‘Then I call you to fight.' (This was the same policy Muhammad used with those who rejected his invitation.) 'Umru answered him, `What for my nephew? By God, I do not like to kill you.' `Ali said, `But, by God, I love to kill you"' (ibn Hisham, "The Biography of the Prophet", part 3, p. 113; see also Al Road Al Anf part 3, p. 263).
Ibn Kathir says that Muhammad's followers met a man and asked him to become a Muslim. He asked them, "What is Islam?" They explained that to him. He said, "What if I refuse it? What would you do to me?" They answered, "We would kill you." Despite that, he refused to become a Muslim and they killed the poor man after he went and bade his wife farewell. She continued to weep over his corpse for days until she died of grief over her slain beloved who was killed for no reason. (ref: Isma'il Ibn Kathir in his book, "The Prophetic Biography", part 3, p. 596)
"Islam has approved war so that the Word of God becomes supreme. This is war for the cause of God (Holy War). Muhammad, therefore, sent his ambassadors to eight kings and princes in the neighborhood of the Arab Peninsula to call them to embrace Islam. They rejected his call. Thus, it became incumbent on the Muslims to fight them." (Afif, Abdul-Fattah, The Spirit of the Islamic Religion, p. 382)
"Islamic law demands that before Muslims start fighting infidels (unbelievers), they first deliver the message of Islam to them. It was proven that the prophet never fought people before he called them to embrace Islam first. He used to command his generals to do so also." (Afif, Abdul-Fattah, The Spirit of the Islamic Religion, p. 384)
"God had made it clear to us that (we should) call for acceptance of Islam first, then wage war. It is not admissible to wage war before extending the invitation to embrace Islam first, as the Qur'an says. `We verily sent our messenger with clear proofs and revealed to them the scripture and the balance, that mankind may observe right measure, and he revealed iron, wherein is mighty power and uses for mankind and that Allah (God) may know him who helps Him and his messengers. Allah is strong, Almighty"' (Surah Iron 57:25). (Dr. Muhammad al-Amin, "The Methodology of Islamic Law", p. 17):
"The prophet Muhammad did not accept from the Arab heathens less than Islam or the sword. This is compulsion of faith. No compulsion in faith (or religion) applies only to Christians or Jews because they are not to be forced to embrace the religion. They have the option either to embrace Islam, the sword, or to pay the poll-tax. In this case they can keep their own faith. It was truly said on the authority of the apostle of God that there is no compulsion in the faith. (ibn Hazm, volume 8, part 11, on page 196)
The Imam al-Baidhawi offers us (page 58 of his commentary) exactly the same interpretation.
ibn Hisham says that Abu Bakr used to converse with Ibn Abu Rafi al-Ta’i and to say to him:
"God -- —to whom belong the might and exaltation—has sent Muhammad with this religion for which he fought until people entered this religion by hook or by crook." (Al Road Al Anf, part 4, p. 240),
* Narrated Jubair bin Haiya:
'Umar sent the Muslims to the great countries to fight the pagans. When Al-Hurmuzan embraced Islam, 'Umar said to him. "I would like to consult you regarding these countries which I intend to invade." Al-Hurmuzan said, "Yes, the example of these countries and their inhabitants who are the enemies of the Muslims, is like a bird with a head, two wings and two legs; If one of its wings got broken, it would get up over its two legs, with one wing and the head; and if the other wing got broken, it would get up with two legs and a head, but if its head got destroyed, then the two legs, two wings and the head would become useless. The head stands for Khosrau, and one wing stands for Caesar and the other wing stands for Faris. So, order the Muslims to go towards Khosrau." So, 'Umar sent us (to Khosrau) appointing An-Numan bin Muqrin as our commander. When we reached the land of the enemy, the representative of Khosrau came out with forty-thousand warriors, and an interpreter got up saying, "Let one of you talk to me!" Al-Mughira replied, "Ask whatever you wish." The other asked, "Who are you?" Al-Mughira replied, "We are some people from the Arabs; we led a hard, miserable, disastrous life: we used to suck the hides and the date stones from hunger; we used to wear clothes made up of fur of camels and hair of goats, and to worship trees and stones. While we were in this state, the Lord of the Heavens and the Earths, Elevated is His Remembrance and Majestic is His Highness, sent to us from among ourselves a Prophet whose father and mother are known to us. Our Prophet, the Messenger of our Lord, has ordered us to fight you till you worship Allah Alone or give Jizya (i.e. tribute); and our Prophet has informed us that our Lord says:-- "Whoever amongst us is killed (i.e. martyred), shall go to Paradise to lead such a luxurious life as he has never seen, and whoever amongst us remain alive, shall become your master." (Al-Mughira, then blamed An-Numan for delaying the attack and) An-Nu'man said to Al-Mughira, "If you had participated in a similar battle, in the company of Allah's Apostle he would not have blamed you for waiting, nor would he have disgraced you. But I accompanied Allah's Apostle in many battles and it was his custom that if he did not fight early by daytime, he would wait till the wind had started blowing and the time for the prayer was due (i.e. after midday)." (Sahih Bukhari 4.386)
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